dagesh: turns the following soft consonants into hard ones. Note: as a rule these letters are soft when in the word and hard when at the beginning of a word.
- בּ – b – bet – with a dot (hard), ב – v -vet without a dot (soft)
- כּ – k – kaf – with a dot (hard), כ – ch – chaf – without a dot (soft)
- פּ – p – pe – with a dot (hard), פ - f – fe – without a dot (soft)
a dot is used to discern a sh from an s:
- שׁ sh – shin with the dot on the right dent
- שׂ s – sin (voiceless as in stress) with the dot on the left dent. This letter is rare. Mostly the voiceless s appears in Hebrew as a samech ס.